Today's issue of Science reports the findings of a team of researchers from the University of Chicago, who have identified two alleles
that have evolved significantly over the last 60,000 years. These alleles associated with genes microcephalin and ASPM, are said to be responsible for the size of the human brain. This comes behind last year's discovery of 20 genes associated with the brain that have evolved faster in the great ape lineage than, say, in mice. It was widely believed that human evolution has flatlined for the last 50,000 years or so. This new theory turns that on its head. If true, it could mean the human brain has and continues to evolve.
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